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UN Report: Role of Microcredit
Page 2 of 10
I. Introduction 1-3
II. Role of microcredit in poverty eradication 4-40
A. Microcredit and poverty eradication 5-7
B. Characteristics and recent successes of microcredit programmes 8-25
C. Recent developments of international institutions 26-31
D. Towards stronger support to small enterprises 32-40
III.International support to microcredit lending 41-61
A. United Nations 42-52
B. United Nations funds and programmes 53-56
C. Specialized agencies of the United Nations 57-61
1. The objective of the First United Nations Decade for the Eradication of Poverty (1997-2006), proclaimed by the General Assembly in its resolution 50/107 or 20 December 1995, is to achieve the goal of eradicating absolute poverty through national action and international cooperation. Progress on the anti-poverty front was last reported to the General Assembly in the report to the Secretary-General entitled "Observance of the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty (1996) and recommendations for the rest of the Decade" (A/52/573). An updated report on the Decade has been prepared for the current session.
2. The General Assembly, in its resolution 52/194 of 18 December 1997, noted that, in many countries microcredit programmes have proved to be an effective tool in freeing people from poverty and have helped to increase their participation in the economic and political processes of society. Among other provisions, the Assembly called upon the relevant organs, organizations and bodies of the United Nations system, in particular its funds and programmes and the regional commissions, as well as relevant international and regional financial institutions and donor agencies involved in the eradication of poverty, to explore including the microcredit approach in their programmes as a tool for the eradication of poverty. The assembly requested the Secretary-General, in collaboration with relevant organizations of the United Nations system, including funds and programmes and the World Bank, to submit to it at its fifty-third session a report on the role of microcredit in the eradication of poverty.
3. The World Summit for Social Development, held in Copenhagen in March 1995, also underlined the importance of improving access to credit for small rural or urban producers, landless farmers and other people with low or no income, with special attention to the needs of women and disadvantaged and vulnerable groups. Governments were called upon to review national legal, regulatory and institutional frameworks that restrict the access of people living in poverty, especially women, to credit on reasonable terms; to promoting realistic targets for access to affordable credit, providing incentives for improving access to and strengthening the capacity of organized credit systems to deliver credit and related services to people living in poverty and vulnerable groups; and to expanding financial networks, building on existing networks, promoting attractive opportunities for savings and ensuring equitable access to credit at the local level (1).
II. Role of microcredit in poverty eradication
4. This is the first time that the Secretary-General has been requested to report to the General Assembly on the subject of microcredit. In the broader context of the international fight against poverty, the paper highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the microlending approach, from which some conclusions about the future course of action are drawn. The report, as requested by the General Assembly, provides information from United Nations funds, programmes and agencies on their actions especially in the field.